BILLS OF LADING 23
no right to it, or in the absence of known fraud, has author-
ity to deliver the goods. In the event of any goods being
so delivered to another person who holds the document of
title but is not authorized, the master is free from liability
for wrongful delivery.
v/rhere are two types of bill of lading at present in use:
the first of which is the "received for shipment bill of
lading "—in short, a " received bill of lading " which states
that the goods have been received for shipment on board
the steamship. Here there is no actual receipt for goods
which have been shipped.
The second type is the shipped bill of lading. As will be
seen in the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, there is a stipula-
tion that a shipper, if he so demands, shall have issued to
him a shipped bill of lading when the cargo is loaded. This
commences " Shipped on board the steamship............................"
and states definitely that the goods are actually on board.
Bankers are reluctant to accept documents that do not
clearly set out this important statement, and many demand
the "shipped" bills of lading. Many shipping companies
now only print the shipped bills of lading.
As there is no implied or express demand for a sea-
worthy ship (see Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1924), the
term "shipped on board the good ship" is rarely seen, it
/* shipped on board the vessel............"
next clause for consideration is that of "apparent
good order and condition." The full opening phrase on a
bill of lading is "Shipped (or received) in apparent good
order and condition on board the steamship............"
This phrase means that the outward condition of the goods
on being received by the ship, is in good order; the ship-
owner in effects says: "I can only judge by exterior proof
as to the soundness of the goods received, and apparently
they are in good order*" To earn his freight the carrier is
only bound to carry the goods and deliver them in the same
order in which he received them. If they were in apparent
good order, on shipment, it is his duty t& deliver them in
like apparent good order and condition,